Properties and structure of carbohydrates. The functions of carbohydrates

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2018-03-17 22:50:29

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For the human body, as well as other living beings, need energy. It prevents the flow of any process. After all, every biochemical reaction, every enzymatic process or stage of the metabolism need for energy source.

Therefore, the value of the substances that provide the body strength to life, is very great and important. What are these substances? Carbohydrates, proteins, fats. The structure of each of them is different, they belong to completely different classes of chemical compounds, but one of their functions is similar - providing the body with the necessary energy for life. Consider one group of the following substances - carbohydrates.

the structure of carbohydrates

Classification of carbohydrates

The Composition and structure of carbohydrates since their opening they were called. In fact, according to early sources, it was believed that it this group of compounds, the structure of which contains atoms of carbon, associated with water molecules.

A More thorough analysis, as well as historical information about the diversity of these substances has allowed to prove that not all the representatives have only this composition. However, this characteristic continues to be one of those that defines the structure of carbohydrates.

Modern classification of this group of compounds is as follows:

  1. Monosaccharides (ribose, fructose, glucose and so on).
  2. Oligosaccharides (BIOS, TRIZ).
  3. Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose).

Also all carbohydrates can be classified into two large groups:

  • Restoring;
  • Nevosstanovlenie.

The structure of the molecules of carbohydrates each group take a closer look.

Monosaccharides: feature

This category includes all simple carbohydrates which contain aldehydic (aldose) or ketone (ketosis) group and no more than 10 carbon atoms in the structure of the circuit. If you look at the number of atoms in the main chain, the monosaccharides can be divided into:

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  • Triose (glyceraldehyde);
  • Tetrose (develops rich bronze colour, erythrose);
  • Pentoses (ribose and deoxyribose);
  • Hexose (glucose, fructose).

Of All the other members are not so important to the body as above.

structure of fats proteins and carbohydrates

Features of the structure of molecules

The structure of a monosaccharide can be represented as a chain or a cyclic carbohydrate. How does it happen? The fact that the Central carbon atom in the compound is asymmetric the center around which the molecule in solution is able to rotate. Thus formed optical isomers of the monosaccharides L - and D-forms. The formula of glucose, recorded in a straight chain, then one can grasp the grouping of aldehyde (or ketone) and roll into a ball. Get the corresponding cyclic formula.

The Chemical structure of carbohydrates a number of mannose is quite simple: the number of the carbon atoms forming the chain or cycle, from each of which at different or on one side there are hydroxyl groups and hydrogen atoms. If all of the same structure on one side, then formed a D-isomer, if different alternating each other - then L-isomer. If you write a General formula for the most common representative of the monosaccharides of glucose in molecular form, it will be: C6H12O6. And this entry reflects the structure and fructose too. Because chemically these two monosaccharide structural isomers. Glucose - uldehitusest, fructose - keesport.

The Structure and properties of carbohydrates of a number of monosaccharides are closely interrelated. After all, due to the presence of aldehyde and ketone groups within the structure they belong to, aldehyde and tetanospasmin, which determines their chemical nature and reactions in which they are able to join.

So, glucose is showing the following chemical properties:

1. Reaction due to the presence of carbonyl groups:

  • Oxidation - the reaction of "silver mirror";
  • With freshly precipitated hydroxide of copper (II) - aldonova acid;
  • Strong oxidizing agents capable of forming dibasic acid (algarabia), transforming not only the aldehyde, but one hydroxyl group;
  • Recovery - are converted into polyhydric alcohols.

chemical structure of carbohydrates

2. Are present in the molecule and a hydroxyl group, reflecting the structure. Properties of carbohydrates that affect these groups:

  • Ability to alkylation is the formation of simple esters;
  • The acylation - formation of esters;
  • Positive reaction to copper hydroxide (II).

3. Narrowly-specific properties of glucose:

  • Butyrate;
  • Alcohol;
  • Lactic acid fermentation.

Functions in the body

The Structure and function of carbohydrates a number of closely related mannose. The latter are, above all, to participate in biochemical reactions of living organisms. What role monosaccharides play in this?

  1. The Basis for the production of oligo - and polysaccharides.
  2. Pentoses (ribose and deoxyribose) is a key molecule involved in the formation of ATP, RNA, DNA. And they, in turn, the main suppliers of hereditary material, energy and protein.
  3. Concentration of glucose in human blood - a sure indicator of osmotic pressure and its changes.

check features of the structure of carbohydrates

Oligosaccharides: structure

Structure of carbohydrates in this group is reduced to two (diosa) or three (triose) molecules of monosaccharides in the composition. There are those, in which 4, 5 or more structures (up to 10), but the most common are disaccharides. That is, the hydrolysis of such compounds break down to form glucose, fructose, pentose, and so on. Which compounds belong to this category? A typical example is sucrose (ordinary cane sugar), lactose (the main component of milk), maltose, lactulose, isomaltose.

The Chemical structure of carbohydrates, this series has the following features:

  1. Molecular formula: C12H22O11.
  2. Two identical or different residue of a monosaccharide in the structure of the disaccharide are joined together with the aid of the glycoside bond of the bridge. The nature of this connection will depend on the restoring ability of sugar.
  3. Reducing disaccharides. The structure of carbohydrates of this type involves the formation of glycoside bridge between the hydroxyl and aldehyde hydroxyl groups of different molecules of mannose. These include maltose, lactose, and so on.
  4. Nevosstanovlenie - a typical example of a sucrose - when a bridge is formed between the hydroxyls of the correct groups without the participation of the aldehyde structure.

Thus, the structure of carbohydrates can be briefly represented in the form of molecular formulas. If you need full detailed structure, to depict it with graphic projections of Fisher or of formula Heuers. Specifically two cyclic monomer (monosaccharide) or different or the same (depends on the oligosaccharide), connected by a glycoside bond bridge. When you build, you should consider restoring the ability to properly display links.

the composition and structure of carbohydrates

Examples of molecules disaccharides

If the job is in the form: "Select features of the structure of carbohydrates", disaccharides it is best to first specify which residues mannose it is. The most common types are:

  • Sucrose - built with alpha glucose and beta fructose;
  • Maltose residues from the glucose;
  • Cellobiose consists of two residues of beta-glucose D-form;
  • Lactose - galactose + glucose;
  • Lactulose - galactose + fructose, and so on.

Then the available balance should be the structural formula with a clear prescription of the type of glycoside bond of the bridge.

Importance to living organisms

Very large, and the role of disaccharides, it is important not only the structure. The functions of carbohydrates and fats in General are similar. It is based on the energy component. However, some individual disaccharides should indicate their particular significance.

  1. Sucrose is the main source of glucose in the human body.
  2. Contains Lactose in the breast milk of mammals, including female to 8 percent.
  3. Lactulose is obtained in the laboratory for use in medical purposes, and is also added in the production of dairy products.

Any disaccharide, trisaccharide and so on in the human body and other creatures undergoes immediate hydrolysis with the formation of the mannose. It is this feature that underlies the use of this class of carbohydrates a man in the raw, unchanged (beet or cane sugar).

structure and properties of carbohydrates

Polysaccharides: molecules

The Function, composition and structure of carbohydrates of this series are of great importance for organisms of living beings and also for human activities. First, you should understand what carbohydrates are polysaccharides.

Enough of Them mnogo:

  • Krahmal;
  • Glycogen;
  • Murein;
  • Glucomannan;
  • Cellulose;
  • Dextrin;
  • Galactomannan;
  • MA...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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