For the human body, as well as other living beings, need energy. It prevents the flow of any process. After all, every biochemical reaction, every enzymatic process or stage of the metabolism need for energy source.
Therefore, the value of the substances that provide the body strength to life, is very great and important. What are these substances? Carbohydrates, proteins, fats. The structure of each of them is different, they belong to completely different classes of chemical compounds, but one of their functions is similar - providing the body with the necessary energy for life. Consider one group of the following substances - carbohydrates.
The Composition and structure of carbohydrates since their opening they were called. In fact, according to early sources, it was believed that it this group of compounds, the structure of which contains atoms of carbon, associated with water molecules.
A More thorough analysis, as well as historical information about the diversity of these substances has allowed to prove that not all the representatives have only this composition. However, this characteristic continues to be one of those that defines the structure of carbohydrates.
Modern classification of this group of compounds is as follows:
Also all carbohydrates can be classified into two large groups:
The structure of the molecules of carbohydrates each group take a closer look.
This category includes all simple carbohydrates which contain aldehydic (aldose) or ketone (ketosis) group and no more than 10 carbon atoms in the structure of the circuit. If you look at the number of atoms in the main chain, the monosaccharides can be divided into:
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Of All the other members are not so important to the body as above.
The structure of a monosaccharide can be represented as a chain or a cyclic carbohydrate. How does it happen? The fact that the Central carbon atom in the compound is asymmetric the center around which the molecule in solution is able to rotate. Thus formed optical isomers of the monosaccharides L - and D-forms. The formula of glucose, recorded in a straight chain, then one can grasp the grouping of aldehyde (or ketone) and roll into a ball. Get the corresponding cyclic formula.
The Chemical structure of carbohydrates a number of mannose is quite simple: the number of the carbon atoms forming the chain or cycle, from each of which at different or on one side there are hydroxyl groups and hydrogen atoms. If all of the same structure on one side, then formed a D-isomer, if different alternating each other - then L-isomer. If you write a General formula for the most common representative of the monosaccharides of glucose in molecular form, it will be: C6H12O6. And this entry reflects the structure and fructose too. Because chemically these two monosaccharide structural isomers. Glucose - uldehitusest, fructose - keesport.
The Structure and properties of carbohydrates of a number of monosaccharides are closely interrelated. After all, due to the presence of aldehyde and ketone groups within the structure they belong to, aldehyde and tetanospasmin, which determines their chemical nature and reactions in which they are able to join.
So, glucose is showing the following chemical properties:
1. Reaction due to the presence of carbonyl groups:
2. Are present in the molecule and a hydroxyl group, reflecting the structure. Properties of carbohydrates that affect these groups:
3. Narrowly-specific properties of glucose:
The Structure and function of carbohydrates a number of closely related mannose. The latter are, above all, to participate in biochemical reactions of living organisms. What role monosaccharides play in this?
Structure of carbohydrates in this group is reduced to two (diosa) or three (triose) molecules of monosaccharides in the composition. There are those, in which 4, 5 or more structures (up to 10), but the most common are disaccharides. That is, the hydrolysis of such compounds break down to form glucose, fructose, pentose, and so on. Which compounds belong to this category? A typical example is sucrose (ordinary cane sugar), lactose (the main component of milk), maltose, lactulose, isomaltose.
The Chemical structure of carbohydrates, this series has the following features:
Thus, the structure of carbohydrates can be briefly represented in the form of molecular formulas. If you need full detailed structure, to depict it with graphic projections of Fisher or of formula Heuers. Specifically two cyclic monomer (monosaccharide) or different or the same (depends on the oligosaccharide), connected by a glycoside bond bridge. When you build, you should consider restoring the ability to properly display links.
If the job is in the form: "Select features of the structure of carbohydrates", disaccharides it is best to first specify which residues mannose it is. The most common types are:
Then the available balance should be the structural formula with a clear prescription of the type of glycoside bond of the bridge.
Very large, and the role of disaccharides, it is important not only the structure. The functions of carbohydrates and fats in General are similar. It is based on the energy component. However, some individual disaccharides should indicate their particular significance.
Any disaccharide, trisaccharide and so on in the human body and other creatures undergoes immediate hydrolysis with the formation of the mannose. It is this feature that underlies the use of this class of carbohydrates a man in the raw, unchanged (beet or cane sugar).
The Function, composition and structure of carbohydrates of this series are of great importance for organisms of living beings and also for human activities. First, you should understand what carbohydrates are polysaccharides.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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