Aromatic hydrocarbons: the main representatives and their application in the national economy.

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2018-03-17 19:50:43

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Aromatic hydrocarbons (also called arenas) – organic Biomedicine whose molecules contain one or several cycles with six atoms of Carbon. The benzene ring is characterized by its special physical and chemical properties. The name “arena” included in organic and General chemistry in the late 18th-early 19th century. These included substances, which consisted of two chemical compounds-Carbon and Hydrogen and had a pleasant smell (resins, balms, essential oils, incense). Over time, the name “aromatic hydrocarbons" lost its meaning, because the aromatic substances were also found among the other classes of organic substances, and most aromatic compounds have an unpleasant or peculiar smell. For the first time benzene was isolated in the early 19th century from coal gas. A little later (1845) by A. F. Hoffmann allocates aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene) produced from coal tar. In our time, the class of arenes (according to the classification of IUPAC) comprises compounds based on molecules which have baseline kernel. So these connections are divided into single and multi-core arena, and aromatic hydrocarbons with condensed nuclei.

The single-Core arena – organic compounds which contain one benzene ring. The structure of the molecule benzene, a typical representative of arenes, often demonstrated with the formula of von stradonitz in the form of a cycle of six atoms of Carbon, which are alternately linked by simple C-C and C=C double bonds. This structure has been confirmed by modern physical and chemical analysis.

Key concepts von stradonitz about the structure of benzene as follows: 1) benzene has the structure of hexagonal rings; 2) in Bensalem ring to provide three simple and three double bonds; 3) all six Carbon atoms in the benzene ring equivalent. The formula shows the elemental composition of benzene, the ratio of atoms of Carbon and Hydrogen in the molecule, the absence of isomers for odnosemjannyj derivatives of benzene.

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Aromatic hydrocarbons are quite common in nature. They are components of coal tar, which is obtained after dry distillation of coal. Arenas are part of many grades of oil and other natural products (resins, balms, etc.). In the process of dry distillation of coal in an average receive about three percent coal tar, or coal tar. And from coal tar during fractional distillation receive a number of fractions: light oil (contains xylene, toluene, benzene, thiophene), carbolic oil (contains Cresols, phenols and manufacture), creosote oil (includes manufacture), anthracene oil (contains phenanthrene, anthracene and other higher arena) and peck which is used for roads and as construction material.

The Use of aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene is characterized by a specific smell, practically insoluble in water. Is a good solvent for organic Biomedicine. Synthesized from coal tar. Benzene-a valuable raw material for the production of dyes, medicines, explosives, plant growth stimulants, herbicides, insecticides, etc.

Toluene soluble in organic solvents. Obtained from coal tar, and some varieties of oil. Synthesized from toluene benzene alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, dyes, medicines, saccharine, TNT.

Xylene are good organic solvents. Obtained from coal-tar oils, and also in the fractional distillation of coal tar. Xylenol synthesized from phthalic anhydride, xylene, artificial fiber polyester. Sometimes xylene added to gasoline.






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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