The purpose, the structure and working principle car starter


2018-03-17 11:51:07




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As you know, to start the vehicle several times to turn the crankshaft. The first machines were doing manually. But now all vehicles are equipped with starter motors that allow the rotation of the shaft without any effort. The driver needs only to insert the key into the lock and rotate in the third position. Further, the motor run without any problems. What is a given element, what is the purpose and principle of operation of the starter? We'll talk about this in our today's article.


Due to the speed of the crankshaft of the engine generates the energy needed to propel the vehicle. But the problem is that when stationary, the engine can't give any energy. the working principle of starter

This raises the question of its launch. With this purpose, and was invented by the starter. The principle of operation will consider a little later. This element is able to spin the shaft by the motor and an external power source. As the latter uses a rechargeable battery. Depending on the model and type of car power can be different. But for most cars enough by a 3 kW motor.


The design of this item includes several parts:

  • Starter armature. Made from alloy steel. It zapressovyvajutsja collector plates and the core.
  • Retractor starter relay. Working principle it is very simple. Relay is used to supply power to the electric motor in the case of turning the ignition key. Relay pushes the one-way clutch. The design of the movable element is present and the power jumper contacts.
  • One way clutch (in common – “Bendix"). Is a roller mechanism that transmits through the pinion gear torque to the flywheel ring.
  • Brush. Serve to supply current to the plates of the armature of the starter. Thanks to the brushes increases the power of the electric motor at the time of its engagement with the flywheel.
  • The Case. It United all of the above elements. Normally, the body has a cylindrical shape. Inside it also is the core and the excitation winding.

the working principle of starter of the car


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Similar design have all modern starters. The difference can only be minimal. So, on cars with automatic transmission the starter is equipped with restraint windings. They serve to ensure that the car would not start on “drive” and other modes, in addition to “neutral”.


There are several types of mechanisms:

  • With gear.
  • Without it.

The Principle of operation of the starter of the latter type is in direct contact with the rotating gear. The main advantage of this design – high maintainability and resistance to high loads.

But on most vehicles item is installed with gear. The principle of operation of a starter of this type will be discussed later. Compared to its counterpart, the element has a high efficiency, consumes less power, has small size and retains high performance throughout the work period.

Working Principle

As this item is powered by a battery, a prerequisite to run is the presence of a voltage of 12V and above. Typically, when you run the starter voltage "sags" to 1-1,5 In, which is very essential. In this regard, it is not recommended for a long time to turn the starter (more than five seconds) because you can easily drain the battery. The working principle of starter of the car is quite simple. First, the driver puts the key into the lock and turns it into an extreme position. So he will start the ignition system. To run the starter motor requires to crank the key again. At this time, the contacts will close and the voltage will go through the relay pull-in winding. The relay itself can produce the characteristic click. This suggests that the contact is closed. the principle of operation of the starter relay

Next, anchor the retractor element moves within the housing, thereby pushing the Bendix and putting it into mesh with the flywheel ring. When the anchor reaches the end point is the closure of the contacts. The voltage supplied to the motor winding starter. All this leads to rotation of the flywheel of the engine. At the same time it rotates itself to the crankshaft of the motor. The cylinder begins to enter the fuel mixture, and light up candles. Thus the motor is driven.

After the rotational speed of the flywheel exceeds the speed of the shaft the starter gear out of the Bendix. He, thanks to the return spring is mounted in the original position. Simultaneously, the key switch returns to its original position. The power supply is interrupted to the starter. the purpose and principle of operation of a starter

Thus, the principle of operation of the starter (Vase included) focused on short-term rotation of the flywheel thereby starts the engine. The item stops working as soon as the engine has successfully started.

What happens if you do not disable the starter on a running engine?

Often these problems are observed in a failed return spring. If the starter motor will continue to rotate with the flywheel you will hear a loud grinding noise. It is because the speed of rotation of the crown is not the same as the one that throws the starter gear (the difference in 2 and more times). This can happen due to a broken ignition switch. principle of operation of a starter VAZ

Note that this process is very harmful to the gears for the starter in General. Even short-term crunch may cause serious problems with the motor.

Requirements for starter

This mechanism should meet several requirements:

  • Reliability. We assume the absence of failures in the next 60-80 thousand kilometers).
  • The Ability to run in low temperatures. Very often, the starter badly twists at -20 and below. But usually the cause is cold, the electrolyte in the battery. To warm up before running it is recommended that a couple of times “blink” beam.
  • The Ability of the mechanism to reusable launch within a short period of time.


So we found out what is the starter its working principle. As you can see, it is an essential element of any modern car. If he fails, the start motor will only have “bump” (and on machines with automatic transmission – not impossible). So you need to monitor his condition and not to ignore the failure.


Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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