Particulate filters. Function, device, operation

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2018-03-17 20:30:19

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The Introduction of new environmental standards is forcing car manufacturers to develop new and more advanced technologies, allowing their products to meet the standards. Such aspirations due to the emergence of entire families of engines, which feature low-emissions products. Work is underway in other areas. So, in 2004 appeared the particulate filter on diesel, which minimizes the amount of harmful emissions. By the time he appeared he was so greatly in demand, developers continued development of the idea, in our days, according to standard «Euro 5», the presence of this device in the design of the car is mandatory.

Why the need For a particulate filter?

diesel particulate filters

Devices of this type are a means of purification of exhaust gases. Immediately it should be noted that diesel particulate filters are used exclusively in diesel engines. In diesel units, their analogue is the catalyst. The main task is the removal of toxic substances from the exhaust. Such processing gases and makes the machine more environmentally friendly. Filters can be different, but they all perform the task of reducing the indices of soot emissions by 80%.

Unfortunately, running this function entails a lot of other problems, most of which involved servicing the filter. As the processing gases, the device is contaminated and requires cleaning. In extreme cases, diesel particulate filters are removed and in their place are installed new components of post-treatment.

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Filter Device

diesel particulate filter on the diesel engine

The Unit is positioned behind the catalytic Converter. Some variations also allow the filter and its structural alignment with the oxidation catalyst. In such cases it is behind the exhaust manifold, where there is the maximum temperature of the gases. The main part of the matrix is placed in a metal housing. In standard models it is made of silicon carbide, which is characterized by cellular structure with channels of small cross section. In fact, the porous structure of the side walls of these channels and provides clearing. It is important to note that the particulate filter on diesel is only part of the whole complex of devices and systems involved in the workflow. In this group are also involved temperature sensors, the power unit, onboard computer, turbocharger, etc. Another thing is that the filter does the final cleaning function and can therefore be considered as a key element, as it implements the physical apprehension of harmful elements.

Working Principle

remove diesel particulate filter

The Whole process can be divided into two phases – direct implementation of the filter and regeneration of soot. In the first stage, the soot particles are captured, and then deposited on the filter walls. In this respect, the most problematic are small particles up to 1 µm, since their light weight prevents the arrest. Although the proportion of such elements represents only 5% of the total, they are the most dangerous to humans. However, modern diesel particulate filters allow you to efficiently cope with processing of such particles. The second stage is the regeneration of the settled elements. The fact that their accumulation in large amounts is not only harmful to the filter, but reduces engine power because it formed the obstacle to the subsequent passage of gases. In this regard, the measures for cleaning diesel particulate devices are mandatory in vehicle maintenance.

Passive cleaning of filter

diesel particulate filter price

This clean is implemented due to the high temperatures of exhaust gases that can reach 600 °C. Another kind of passive way of regeneration is the introduction of the various fuel additives, ensure the effective burning of the soot. In this case also, the influence of temperature, but at 400-500 °C. to Monitor the modes of the thermal effects allows a sensor of the particulate filter, which controls some parameters of the engine. However, in some conditions of the vehicle passive filtration is useless or impossible.

Active cleaning of filter

This is a forced approach to cleaning the air filter, which is based on special raise the temperature in the environment of exhaust gases. Accumulates in the process of maintaining these conditions carbon black is gradually consumed. The main active cleaning – ways to achieve a high temperature. Among the most common methods allocate a late fuel injection, the supply of diesel on the exhaust stroke and the heating by microwaves. In some cases, cleaning of the particulate filter is heated. The device can be installed near the cleaning device, but before that you should carefully consider the Seating configuration of its components. Management of active restoration is carried out with the participation of sensors – in particular, devices are used for measuring pressure and temperature.

sensor particulate filter

How to remove diesel particulate filter?

Despite the use of modern cleaning systems, filters of this type sooner or later begin to interfere with the operation of the engine. This is expressed by accumulations of soot, which are not removed in the ways intended. The output from such situations may be dismantling the device. Moreover, running the event in two stages. The first is a mechanical operation, during which dismantled directly to the particulate filter. The price of this procedure varies from 7 to 12 thousand rubles By the way, the new lter has been estimated at 30-40 thousand rubles, so few people decide on a complete upgrade of the treatment system. The second step is to programmatically remove the device by reflashing the engine control unit.

Conclusion

cleaning the DPF

The Developers of environmental standards with regard to cars certainly care about the future of humanity and seek to Orient producers on the destinations, the most humane from the point of view of impact on the environment. The end product of the development of one of these directions and steel diesel particulate filters that reduce the harmful impact on the environment. Thus, motorists together with the new installation problems. It is sufficient to note the need for regular monitoring of the efficiency of regeneration of the filters. In case of insufficient self-cleaning of the device car owner remains nothing, except how to remove this block or replace it with a new filter. But in both cases, costs will be inevitable.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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