Modern industry is developing very dynamically. Unlike past years, this development is an intensive way, with the involvement of the latest scientific developments. Of paramount importance resource-saving technology. This term refers to a whole system of measures aimed at significant reduction in the consumption of resources while maintaining a high level of product quality. Ideally, try to achieve the minimum possible consumption of raw materials.
Despite the efforts of environmental organizations and legislators about a significant reduction in harm to the environment by industrial enterprises to speak of. Only in Russia the damage from industrial emissions is estimated at 150 billion rubles annually, while in US this figure is reaches about 7% of domestic GDP!
International experience shows that the costs incurred for a resource-saving technology in the first stage of its implementation, not comparable with the expenses for the leveling effects of the use of dirty and outdated production methods. The same time recovering the full cost of new technologies does not exceed five years.
The great danger is the gradual depletion of minerals. So, only 50 years ago did not develop deposits of iron ore if the iron content was less than 50-60%. Today begin mining the ore in which no more than 30 % metal.
Even the ash used in CHP coal now exceeds 30%, whereas in the 60 years of this figure does not exceed 20%. Some cities are forced to use for heating the raw material, ash content exceeds 55 %. Moreover, in some cases, have started extraction of raw materials even from dumps of the past. All this contributes to a sharp increase in the amount of waste. Thus, resource-saving technology is extremely important as it allows industry and the national economy to consume less raw materials, producing more products.
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In most cases, reducing the amount of resources consumed is performed by re-use of waste materials. So, in the smelting of steel at the present time is not less than 30% is prefabricated of metal, in the manufacture of paper is taken up to 25% recycled paper. Non-ferrous metals uses at least 20% recycled materials. It should be noted that the size of investment for the widespread introduction of technologies of recycling waste materials at exactly four times lower than when the production systems for mining.
Considering the fact that you don't need to invest in steel production, these technologies allow a minimum of one-third reduction in thermal pollution of the external environment. Simply put, reduces the harm of the greenhouse effect. In short, to invest in these developments are very profitable.
First, any resource-saving technology allows to significantly reduce the amount of waste and emissions into the environment. For example, when involved in the processing of chlorine-containing waste of metallurgical production of titanium emission level of chlorine in the environment were reduced by 50%!
The Square, which until then had been busy technological dumps or landfills, new technologies enable completely free from trash and use for recreational purposes. By the way, send on recycling, which in many contain sulphur dioxide (in the same industry, for example), not only reduces environmental pollution but also significantly reduces the number of the initially produced sulfur.
It is Extremely important that new technologies develop database for processing of polymeric wastes: specific heat capacity of two tons of plastic bottles equals the same value for a ton of crude oil! Thus, to create filters of new generation, we can heat the large cities, using just a plastic trash from landfills.
Highly the importance of new technologies in ferrous metallurgy. If you melt a tonne of scrap metal, environmental pollution (in comparison with the smelting of steel from ore) is reduced from 86%, water 76% less, and the total amount of waste is reduced from 57%! Approximately the same picture is obtained by comparing the production of paper from waste paper and virgin.
In light of the fact that the current situation in the environmental field leaves much to be desired, modern technology must contribute to the reduction of emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Considering the condition of the same today Norilsk metallurgical and other cities not only in our country but throughout the world, the latest industrial technologies should not only give employment to thousands of people in heavy industry, but also to protect their health.
First, there is widespread replacement of low-quality raw materials to more modern counterparts that can produce the same amount of products with best quality. For example, in paint manufacture, this approach led to the replacement of standard paint to organic solvents, water-soluble products.
For consumers it is also important preserved functionality of the product without compromising its real technical characteristics. An excellent example is the replacement of polymer films on paper in the case with sticky tape. Its quality remains the same, but the amount of waste and emissions decreased sharply. This is resource-saving technologies, examples of which we cited in our article.
Of Course, it is crucial to change the manufacturing process so that it corresponded to modern realities. So, today increasing importance is given to the relocation of production to continuous cycle production. This solution is much more promising than the periodic stopping and starting of the equipment, which is accompanied by a sharp increase in the emission of harmful substances.
Allied to this is the requirement for the conversion of production to new hardware, which consumes less supplies, fuel and spare parts. Such resource-saving technologies in the industry, greatly improve the processability. This not only helps reduce waste but also contributes to a significant cheapening of the final product.
For example, these include CNC machines and a fully computerized production line which with maximum precision and efficiency can cut from a single piece of metal required parts. These machines (compared to normal) reduce the amount of waste by 50-80%. In addition, do not have to worry about the level of training of the workers.
Note that the use of modern technology must not only assume a maximum waste reduction, but also for their safe storage. To the last point include the following requirements:
A Classic example can be considered pyrolysis coal processing, chemical methods of beneficiation of ores, methods of alkaline processing of peat, through which it turns out is not only fuel, but also humic fertilizers, plant growth stimulants. All of these technological “frills” not only dramatically reduce the number required for production of raw materials, but also give a lot of side healthy products. This is especially true of peat processing when you are using chemicals from everyday raw materials for the CHP get even drugs!
If you think that the introduction of resource-saving technologies in biological production limited to only new methods of obtaining biologically active additives and medicines, then you are deeply mistaken. The modern level of technology development suggests their use even in metallurgy.
So, now increasingly used bacterial leaching of metals when the ores with a minimum content of substance (old dumps) are able to produce a lot of high-quality raw materials, without polluting dumps from the development of the whole district. Even cuter bacterial the extraction of valuable met...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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