One of the most outstanding personalities in Russian culture of the late XVIII-early XIX centuries was Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich. He was a striking figure, and as a statesman and as a poet, Peru which belong to the most famous poem of his time, imbued with the spirit of the Enlightenment. There are a few people able to do a lot for the cultural development of their country, as did Gabriel Derzhavin. Biography and works of this great man, no doubt, deserve a detailed study.
But before you start learning the facts of life Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich, let's briefly look at the history of his kind.
The Family of Derzhavins has Tatar roots. The founder of the clan is considered Horde Mirza Ibrahim, who moved in the XV century in the service of the Grand Prince of Moscow Vasily II the Dark, and was baptized under the name of Ilya. Given that convert the Tartar was of a noble family the Prince had granted him the rank of nobility.
Brahima was the son of Arbek, in baptism named Dmitry, from the older son which has been a sort Narbekovich and younger – Alexei Narbekova, nicknamed the Power, has formed a dynasty, of Derzhavins.
The descendants of the founders kind of completely Russified, which greatly favored the numerous marriages with the representatives of the Russian nobility, he held significant positions at the princes and the tsars of the Russian Empire. In particular, was a Governor and steward. That's just a descendant of this glorious race and was Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich.
The Life of Gavriil Derzhavin began on 3 July (old calendar) 1743. It was then that he was born in the village of Sokury in the Kazan province in the family of a military officer of the Roman Nikolaevich Derzhavin and Thecla Gantry.
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Due to the specifics of military service of the Roman N. the family constantly had to move from place to place. However, Gavriil Romanovich lost my dad in 11 years.
The Future poet began his education seven years old when he was sent to study in boarding school. However, because of the poverty that sunk the family after the loss of a breadwinner, to study was quite difficult. However, in 1759 Gavriil Derzhavin in Kazan comes to the school of the gymnasium type, which three years later graduated, showcasing some of the best results in training. However, his training is over. Such education even in those days was considered superficial.
Immediately after graduation, Gavriil Romanovich was enlisted as an ordinary soldier in the Preobrazhensky guards. There he begins to write the first poems. The structure of this division participated in the coup in 1762 to overthrow the Emperor Peter III and the enthronement of Catherine, later called the great. This fact largely reflected in his further career.
A decade after the coup Gavriil Derzhavin finally gets the rank of officer, and a year after it was first published in his poems. Then he distinguished himself in the struggle against the rebellion of Pugachev.
After retiring from military service in 1777, due to his personal request in a letter to the Empress Catherine, Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich goes to civil service. In addition, he received a further 300 farmers in possession. Six months later becomes a clerk in the Senate. In 1780 he became a councillor of state revenue and expenditure, which was quite a lucrative position.
A Wide fame as a poet Derzhavin acquired in 1782, with the publication of his ode to “FeliCa”, dedicated to the glorification of the Empress Catherine II. Of course, this work was full of flattery to the Supreme person, but at the same time, it was highly and directly contributed to the further career of the author. Thanks to him, has won the favor of the Empress Gavriil Derzhavin. His biography in the future consists of a series of promotions through the ranks. In the same year he becomes a state Councilor.
In 1783 he founded the Academy in St. Petersburg, and the poet since he became its full member.
However, we cannot say that everything about him was absolutely smoothly in the public service. Due to a conflict with the senior Prince Viazemsky, his former patron, and retired Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin. A brief biography makes it impossible to comment on all of the highlights of this case.
However, in 1784 he was sent to control of Olonets in Karelia. There Gavriil Romanovich has been a large effort in establishing public life and the economy of the region, thereby demonstrating their high organizational talents. This period of life and the edge, which was ruled by a poet, dedicated to the considerable body of poetry of Derzhavin.
Two years later give him a more lucrative post of Tambov Governor that promised more income and privileges.
Meanwhile, new service heights is seeking Derzhavin Gabriel. In short, in 1791 he became Secretary of the Empress Catherine, and two years later promoted to the rank of Senator and privy Councilor. From now on we can safely say thatDerzhavin made it to the elite of Russian society.
In 1795, Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich awarded the title of President of Collegium of Commerce - the state body whose task was management and control of trade. Of course, it was a very lucrative position.
After the death of Catherine, the Emperor Paul I, Gavriil Romanovich became the state Treasurer and the Governor of the Chancellery of the Senate. When the successor of Paul, Alexander I, in 1802, Derzhavin received a Ministerial portfolio, becoming Minister of justice. It was the peak of his career.
But in 1803 at the age of sixty years, the Minister of justice retires and never comes back to public service, having lived to the death in one of his mansions in the village of Zvanka, Novgorod province. There are a number of reasons which led to the fact that he was forced to retire Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin. A brief biography can only list them, without specifying details. It is old age, fatigue from the public service of the Derzhavin, and most importantly - the desire of his removal to new favorites Alexander I.
However, in this event, there is one positive point: the resignation allowed Gabriel Romanovich to concentrate on literary activities.
The Creativity of Gavriil Derzhavin is an iconic character for its time. As mentioned earlier, the first of his poems he wrote, as a private in the Preobrazhensky guard. However, this poetry of Derzhavin wrote rather for himself than for a General overview.
For the First time his poems were published only after ten years, and in 1773, when Derzhavin was placed in the officer positions. But the fame of the poet on a national level for his ode to “FeliCa”, dedicated to the Empress of all Russia Catherine II. This work was full of compliments and praises of the Royal person, but at the same time, the composition of the ball quite slender, and used metaphors put ode on a par with the greatest creations of modern poetry.
It was after the publication of “Felici” Derzhavin became one of the most famous Russian poets of his time.
A Complex fate had Gavriil Derzhavin. The facts of his life demonstrates that even occupying high government posts, he did not forget about poetry. It is to this period of activity is the writing of such seminal works as “the Thunder of victory rang out”, “Swan”, “God”, “Noble”, “Waterfall” and many others. Each of them had their conceptual characteristics and relevance of the topic. For example, “the Thunder of victory rang out” was put on music until the mid-nineteenth century was considered an unofficial Russian anthem. Another creation of the poet ‘Autumn during the siege of Ochakov” was a kind of poem-a call for action against the Ottoman army. And works such as “Swan” and “Waterfall”, was written under the impression of stay in Karelia Republic Derzhavin.
Derzhavin wrote as a lyric poem, and epic to raise the morale and the exaltation of the Empress and the Russian Empire. Each piece had its own unique flavor.
It is Noteworthy that most of the most famous works of Gavriil chronologically falls in the period of his higher career in public service.
As mentioned above, the resignation from the civil service allowed Derzhavin to devote more time to poetry and literary activity in General.
In 1808 it was published a new collection of his essays in five parts.
In 1811, together with the other significant figures of Russian culture Aleksandr Semenovich Shishkov, the Minister, the resignation creates a literary society. The creation of this organization, of course, one of the many acts that could be proud of Gavriil Derzhavin. Brief biography, unfortunately, limits the scope of the narrative and gives details about the activities of this society.
Particularly noteworthy later became a famous meeting Pennsylvania with the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. However, then Pushkin was still a student and fame had not, but Gavriil Romanovich, taking the exam, already noticed in him the makings of a genius. This momentous encounter took place a year before the death of Derzhavin in 1815.
Gabriel Derzhavin was married twice. The first time he married at the age of 35 years at sixteen Ekaterina Yakovlevna Bastidon, who was the daughter of a Valet of the deposed Emperor Peter III, the former Portuguese. Hence, such a strange Russian name. The wedding took place in 1778. Between the newlyweds was quite reverent feeling, which is not surprising, given the personal qualities of Gavriil and beauty Ekaterina Yakovlevna. No wonder Derzhavin believed his wife Muse that inspires his creativity.
But happiness is not eternal, and Gabriel Derzhavin attains great sorrow. His young wife, being only 34 years old, dying in 1794.She is buried in the Lazarev cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Although the grief of Gavriil no bounds, within six months after the death of his wife he married a second time. His betrothed was the daughter of the attorney General and state Councilor Daria Alexeevna Dyakova. At the time of their marriage the bride was just 28 years old, while Derzhavin – 51. I must say that unlike the first marriage of the poet this Union was not built on love but on friendship and mutual respect. Experienced Daria Alekseevna her husband of 26 years, but nevertheless the second time I got married.
Children of Gabriel Romanovich Derzhavin was not, but he took over the childcare of her dead friend Peter Lazarev, whose name was Andrew, Alex and Michael. The last of them in the future became the discoverer of Antarctica.
Died Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin in his estate of Zvanka, in which he lived in recent years, after the resignation from the Ministerial post. It happened on the seventy-third year of the poet's life 8 July (old style) 1816. At the time of death, beside him was his faithful wife Darya Alekseevna.
But, except his wife, about the loss of such a powerful cultural beacon of its time, of course, grieving a significant part of the Russian intelligentsia and enlightened personalities as well as people who just were familiar with Gabriel Romanovich and knew him as a helpful and noble man.
Buried Gavriil Derzhavin in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, located not far from Novgorod.
Quite complex, rich and interesting life Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich. The facts of his biography indicate a significant role of this personality in the cultural life of the country and in social activities. It is necessary to emphasize its service to the Russian Empire in various government positions. But the main legacy left by Gavriil Derzhavin, – this, of course, his brilliant poetry, and appreciate how the poet's contemporaries, and descendants.
And now in Russia remember the contribution that was made by Gavriil Romanovich in the development of national culture. To commemorate the great poet shown by the numerous monuments, steles and plaques, Derzhavin established in different cities of Russia, in particular, in Petrozavodsk, Kazan, Saint-Petersburg, Tambov, and, of course, on the territory of his estate of Zvanka, located in the Novgorod region, where the genius spent the last years of his life. In addition, in honor of Gavriil Derzhavin in many localities are called streets, squares, academic institutions, etc.
Alone should highlight the Museum-estate of the great poet. It is in this mansion at the time of service in St. Petersburg lived Gavriil Derzhavin. Photos of the estate from the Polish garden below.
Now this building is the main Museum dedicated to the life and work of Gabriel Romanovich Derzhavin. Its today's status of the former estate was purchased only in 2003, although the decision on the establishment of the Museum was made five years before. In previous years there was communal. Now the building was reconstructed the interior of the life of Derzhavin.
Of Course, memory of such an outstanding individual as Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin, does not deserve the oblivion and forgotten never in Russia will not.
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