Black-and-white cow belongs to the category of purebred Pets and in high demand among farmers. High performance milk – the main quality of the breed. In this article we consider the features of breeding and keeping of black-motley cows.
Cows of black-motley breed bred by crossing several Dutch breeds. Horned livestock of black-motley colouring has a good physique, strong bones and is very large. The trunk of the animal is proportional to, back straight, straight set of smooth legs. The average weight of a cow is 500-650 kg, and bull – 950–1000 kg. Calves are usually born with a mass of about 40 kg. Meat quality of the animal is acceptable. Milk – the main purpose for which diluted black-and-white cow. The productivity of this breed is very high. Thus, the average annual milk yield per cow can range from 4000 to 6500 kg of milk. The indicator of fat content is more than 3.5%.
Black motley cows easily adapt to different climatic conditions and have extremely good health. Due to the rapid acclimation, these animals are well accustomed in different countries. Among dairy cows on the number of livestock they take second place. In our time scientists are working to improve black-and-white animals by breeding pure breed taking into account the climatic conditions of different territorial zones. To improve the physical settings and enhance productivity using Dutch and Holstein-Friesian breed bulls.
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Cows of black-motley breed were bred in the period of the Soviet Union. So, in 1930-1932 to the territory of Russia from Holland, the Baltic States and Germany delivered a large number of black-and-white animals, which were placed in different regions of the country. Since then it has been actively breeding cows as a pure breed and crossed with other species, which were kept separately. Thus, prolonged operation under different conditions of housing, feeding, breeding managed to bring heterogeneous breed of cattle, which in 1959 was approved under the name "black spotted cow".
The result of a breeding managed to obtain several types of black-motley cows, which differ in the volume of milk yield, fat content of milk and adaptation to climatic conditions:
The Breeding of black-motley breed of cows observed in all regions of Russia. The greatest number of cattle are there in the North-Western regions of the country in Western and Eastern Siberia, the Urals, North Caucasus and far East. The most popular breed in Moldova and in southern Ukraine.
Keeping and breeding of black-motley cattle is almost the same as other types of cows. But before you acquire such an animal, you should calculate the possible costs and planned profit. Black-and-white dairy breed cows with proper care can ensure good earnings, but instead will require a lot of effort. Thus, the livestock consists of many procedures: milking, feeding, cleaning stables, hay, etc.
The breeding of black-motley cattle is important to think about the place where he will be. It should be dry, warm, and spacious (at least 20 m²). Special attention is required winter maintenance. Usually by December, the cow is pregnant, but it continues to milk. Body pregnant cows for intensive milk production is a lot of stress. During this period the animal needs more care. So a cow would need to provide well ventilated, lighted barn. The room temperature should be optimal, that the animal does not get too cold. The ideal temperature – 5 to 12ºC.
Cows of black-motley breed milked in the same pattern as other dairy cows. So, they give a good yield of up to 12–17 of lactation, although this period they are kept in rare cases. The maximum amount of milk can be obtained in period 4 and 5 lactations.
A Big impact on productivity provide the care and quality of conditions in which dwellsblack-and-white breed cows. Yield can be great if you follow the basic rules of detention of cattle. With quiet and gentle treatment of the cow tied to the owner and easily mastered skills.
Puberty in cows occurs in 6 months, but to pair them with the bulls earlier. Economic maturity is reached at 16 months when a live mass of an animal is not less than 70% of adult cows.
Owners of black-motley cows should be remembered that, owing to the large size it requires more feed. So, for a year the animal must be at least 20 kg of hay and, in addition, concentrates and succulent feeds. From cow feed affects the quality and quantity of milk.
In the winter in the barn you need to put the feeder. In size it must contain one serving of hay. Also in the room need to put a barrel of water so the cow could at any time get drunk. If the water in the barn in the winter never freezes, the barrel can be kept always full. Update drink preferably not less than a day, as from the muzzle of the animal in the water, plenty of feed, and it quickly goes out. If the winter in the barn the thermometer shows freezing temperatures, water must be given every time fresh.
Depending on the size and age amounts of feed for the winter can be slightly different. To food enough, it is desirable to prepare approximately 30 kg of straw and hay, and 55 kg of succulent feed. This is a staple food which must eat black-motley breed cows. Feeding forage is recommended at 100 g for 1 l of milk yield. If the quantity of milk produced large, dose can be increased.
If you have youngsters, winter food reserves must be at 15 C gross 9 kg and succulent fodder per head.
Cows of black-motley breed are characterized by good health and high milk production. But even high yielding cow may give insufficient yield. And it may be associated not only with poor health but also by external factors. So, on the productivity of livestock affected by circumstances such as time of year, nutritional value of feed, climatic conditions, age, live weight, length of rest before calving. Also black-and-white cows require careful maintenance and high-quality content. Scientists conducted an experiment during which two cows from the same mother were kept in different conditions. One was in a well-equipped shed, and the other was kept in a harsh environment. In the first case of cows has increased while a high nurse, and in the second – an ordinary cow.
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