Aircraft gasoline – flammable liquid, which is supplied to the motor of the aircraft, mixing with air to obtain thermal energy as a result of oxidation by oxygen of the incoming air in the combustion chamber. In this work fuel piston engines.
In aviation gasoline valued the following characteristics:
The parameter Measurement of resistance to detonation of the aviation fuel needed for decision-making about the suitability of the use of such fuel assemblies, where there is a high degree of compression coming from the tank mixture. For normal operation of the motor of the aircraft it is important to avoid detonation ignition.
Fractional part, you need to know to determine the volatility of gasoline. During the measurement it turns out, regardless of whether the air-fuel mixture.
Chemical stability – opposition to changes in the composition of the combustible fluid during transportation, storage and operation.
There are 2 types of base gasoline – and aktil straight-run-gasoline. The first kind of fuel became popular in the mid-twentieth century, it was mined by direct distillation. Straight-run fuel mixture produced by the method of fractionation and subsequent selection of oil fractions, which evaporate at a certain heat. If the fraction vaporized at temperatures up to 100 degrees Celsius, petrol refers to the first grade if the heating temperature for the evaporation is up to 110 degrees, the gasoline is referred to as a special. If a petroleum fraction in the gasoline evaporates at a temperature up to 130 degrees, the fuel is 2nd grade quality.
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Different types of gasoline obtained by distillation, there is a single factor that unites them – low octane. Using the method of straight-run gasoline mixture above 65 PTS you can get only from oil extracted in Azerbaijan, Krasnodar region, Sakhalin, and Central Asia. In other places, mining «black gold» fuel mixture due to the presence of paraffin hydrocarbons is obtained with low PTS.
The Positive qualities of straight-run gasoline are:
Because this fuel is too high knock resistance, it is used only together with the impurities, with the result that the octane number increases.
The Octane number indicates the resistance to detonation from combustible material, i.e., the ability of a liquid to spontaneously ignite during the compression in the engine. The octane number is equal to the content of isooctane in the fuel mixture together with the substance n-heptane. The mixture must be equivalent in strength and detonation of the fuel sample in normal conditions. Substance isooctane is badly oxidized, so its resistance to detonation took 100 units, and the substance n-heptane detonates even with the slightest compression, and the resistance to detonation it is taken as zero. To determine the resistance to detonation of petrol, whose PTS is greater than 100 units, has created a special scale. It uses the isooctane with the addition of tetraethyl lead in different amounts.
The Octane number is divided into two kinds: mon and Ron. EYES (research octane number) shows the reaction of the gasoline at low and medium engine load. To define the EYES use the installation, simulating the motor with one cylinder. Design is capable of compressing fluid with variable force. The engine speed is equal to 600 rpm.minutes at a temperature of 50 degrees Celsius.
ECM (motor octane number) shows the behavior of liquid fuel during high loads. The method of determination is similar to the previous one, however, the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft installation that simulates the engine is 900 rpm./min, and air temperature tests up to 150 degrees Celsius.
Modern engines used in aircraft require fuel with a minimum octane number-not less than 95 units. Purified gasoline after direct distillation are obtained with a low octane rating, they are not suitable for use in modern aircraft engines. Improve anti-knock properties can be achieved by using additives. Previously, that applied only ethyl fluid. In our days was developed entire systems for the increase of the OCH, which contain oxygenated components, ethers, stabilizers, colorants, corrosion inhibitor and many more.
Aviation gasoline B 91 115 – the fuel mixture, obtained by direct distillation using catalytic reforming. The composition of the fuels included alkylbenzenes, toluene, and various additives (ethyl antioxidant, pigments).Aviation gasoline Avgas 100 ll is composed of a mixture of such high-octane and base components. To obtain such grades of fuel, add ethyl, colorant and additives that prevent corrosion and static electricity.
The differences between the two brands of combustibles is the grade used additives, components and various contents of tetraethyl lead. In the first grade of fuel the amount of tetraethyl lead should not be more than 2.5 g/kg, in the second – 0.56 g/l. Alphabetic cipher ll in the name stands for low lead content in the fuel. The less lead in aviation gasoline, the better its environmental performance. Cleaner gasoline will not only protect nature from destruction but also reduce the toxic effects of fuel at workers constantly forced to contact with him. It should be noted that the legislation does not reglamentary the addition of the aviation fuel additives against corrosion, crystallization and statics.
The Grade of the mixture affects its resistance to explosion during engine operation with maximum possible power. For example, in the grade of fuel No. 115 allowed the increase in power during operation of the internal combustion engine is 15 percent more than in the isooctane. Grade aviation gasoline Avgas 100 ll, according to the documentation, should be not less than 130 units. Aviation gasoline 91 115 – at least 115 units, on the basis of GOST 1012 on aviation gasoline. Fuel Avgas 100 ll give horsepower gains, but only if the engine is running on enriched mixture. Power in this case increases by 15 percent, compared to the fuel grade 91 B 115.
Production of aviation gasoline – is a complex process that involves the following technological operations:
In our country the aviation gasoline is not produced. The reason lies in the ban on the production of ethyl in Russia. Even if the missing component to buy abroad, the production of fuel material is uneconomical because of the small volume of its consumption. Ready fuel for aircraft purchased abroad. The current situation poses the aviation industry in Russia is at a disadvantage, because the production of domestic aircraft depends on the purchase prices of fuel from abroad, as well as the volume of purchases.
In aviation gasoline mandatory add a chemical called tetraethyl lead (tel). This is advantageous from the point of view of economy, since its presence in the composition of fuel has more detonation resistance during combustion in the engine. In addition, TPP prevents the wear of moving engine parts of the plane. It is necessary to add that the TPP in its pure form is not used, it is converted into the ethyl fluid. The content of tetraethyl lead in such a fluid reaches 50 percent.
Compared to automotive fuel, the requirements of GOST for aviation gasoline is much tougher. Its production is regulated by a number of technological processes. Flammable liquid for aerial vehicles is developed considering all of the design of fuel systems and engines in airplanes.
Special requirements for aviation gasoline used in aviation:
Aviation Gasoline B-70 – it's a highly flammable fuel with a pungent odor. Getting it on the skin, eyes or internal organs can lead to irreversible processes, since the substance is very toxic. All the necessary work with such fuel are running the ventilation, and for human protection use gloves of rubber.
Technical characteristics aviation gasoline B-70
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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