Automatic lathe and its characteristics. Lathes-automatic multi-spindle sliding head CNC. Fabrication and machining of parts on automatic lathes


2018-03-18 01:50:43




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Lathe special machine called a lathe, the machining of parts which is produced without human involvement. There is equipment of this type is more expensive than usual. However, the use is more convenient. All operations on these machines are manufactured in automatic mode. Worker attends only for the loading of workpieces and carries out the quality control of manufactured parts.

Varieties of machines machines

There are several types of such equipment. Manufacture of parts can be made on single-spindle or multi-spindle machines. Structurally, they differ little. The only difference is that on such equipment as single-spindle automatic lathes, drilling is performed with only one working tool. In the design of multi-spindle machines there are several. By mean of machined parts of all machines are divided into:

  • Interesnye;

  • Karuselnaya;

  • Lobotomie;

  • Tokarno-freternia;

  • Tokarno-revolvere;

  • Longitudinal turning.

automatic lathe

Cutting machines are used to perform all types of turning operations, boring — for workpieces with a large mass. Facing lathes machines are used for grinding cylindrical, conic and frontal products. Milling equipment is used for relief processing. Turret type machines are used to manufacture parts of complex shape. About what is the machine longitudinal plane and what features of their design, all the details will be discussed below.

Purpose turning machines

As in conventional machines, equipment of this type are produced such works as:

  • Longitudinal turning of cylindrical and stepped surfaces;

  • Treatment of outer conical;

  • Slotting, machining face and square shoulder milling;

  • Boring holes;

  • Drilling,

  • Thread;

  • Riffling

  • Shaped grinding.

General features

All the lathes and semi-automatic machines as regular machines, thus, are designed to remove certain parts of the workpiece during rotation of the latter. Design different types of this equipment can vary greatly. However, the main features of most types are common. In the design of any lathe includes: frame, front and tailstock, the carriage. Latter for holding the tool and moving it in the desired direction. Responsible for this process, a special feed mechanism.


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The grandmother On the front of equipment such as lathe machine, mounted the spindle and gear change speed. Fixed it very firmly, because it can cause vibration transmitted to the workpiece and reduces the quality of the finished part. The spindle in the headstock is fixed on bearings and is equipped with a special clamping devices (loops or cartridges). It is driven by a separate electric motor through gear box.

Bed lathes can be used by different (inverted, V-shaped, flat). Is this subassembly must be accurately. Any deviations lead to a significant reduction in quality of the manufactured products.

The tailstock is used to maintain during turning of long workpieces. It is usually located along the table and is fixed in the most convenient to manufacture the part position.

To Automate lathes can use a controller or a mechanical command device. From simple CNC equipment of this type is characterized in that the workpiece in this case, the processing also serves automatically. These CNC machines can be equipped with optional.

Difference between the machines from conventional machines

Work on machines of this type, therefore, can be performed the same as on the ordinary lathe equipment. The difference lies in the fact that the turning of parts on machines is made according to strictly given cycle. On a normal machine work, graduating from the production of one part, can immediately begin making another. Automatic changeover of Cams takes several hours, but the preparation for it — for a few days.

Application Area

The machines have a much higher performance than conventional machines. Because of their frequent changeovers lead to the loss of production time, using this equipment is usually for mass production. Furthermore, since such equipment is rather expensive, use it only makes sense if there is a need in the manufacture of parts of very complex shapes with a large number of transitions. Very often companies use highly specialized machines of this type, intended for the production of one part or small group of products.

Multi-spindle machines

This kind of automatic lathe equipment used in factories for the mass production of parts of different shapes and sizes. That these machines differ from single-spindle, used primarily for serial production of identical products. There are two types of machines:

  • Horizontal. The main advantage of these machines convenience download the source material. So use them where applicable a continuous supply of rod.

  • Vertical. The advantage of multi-spindle lathes of this kind are considered to be small. Storage equipment of this type is not too much.


Multi-spindle automatic lathe can sometimes be used in small-series production. But only if equipped with CNC.

Sliding head Machines

The Equipment of this type has recently become increasingly popular. Used sliding head lathes for the manufacture mostly small parts of very complex shapes. A distinctive feature of their design is the presence of a movable headstock. Clip type in these machines the collet is used. Counter spindle in sliding head machines installed on high precision linear guides.

A Feature of machines of this kind, furthermore, are small in size. Working area they are not too extensive. Operate machines of this type are usually at a very high speed.

Lathe center lathe can be used in mass and batch production of parts. Often the equipment of this type used in optical, electrotechnical and instrument-making industries. Tools in such machines are installed in the calipers and move only in the horizontal direction. For production use sliding head machines as single-spindle and multi-spindle.

Lathe sliding head machine designed to perform such operations as:

  • Grinding steps;

  • Grooving and cones;

  • Boring shallow holes;

  • Processing of shaped surfaces;

  • Thread cutting internal and external;

  • Deployment of holes;

  • Knurled outer surfaces;

  • Milling slots in screws;

  • Drilling.

The Surface slots of this type may be processed in a variety of: conical, cylindrical, stepped, etc. To extend the capabilities of the machines longitudinal turning used various attachments. For example, the use of transfer levers allows to reduce the wear of Cams and tappets shoes.

multi-spindle automatic lathe

Design Features of NC machines

The headstock is in these machines are fixed on the upper surface of the bed. Ahead of her there is a special plastic designed for mounting of additional devices. On the upper plane mounted vertical support and at the rear — the shaking stops. Control equipment such as a longitudinal automatic lathe, is made through a system of Cams and camshafts, mounted in the bed.

Key benefits

The advantages of machines sliding head primarily include:

  • The possibility of obtaining shaped and conical surfaces when using prismatic cutters;

  • The smooth surface quality of finished products;

  • The possibility of milling along part axis and across it;

  • The possibility of rolling small numbers, signs and letters.

Machining of parts on automatic lathes of this type can be produced with maximum precision.

Working Principle

In the processing of source material for such machines is given not only a rotary movement as normal, but progressive — along the axis. Themselves the cutters in such equipment as CNC turning machining, sliding head machines, move only perpendicular to the rod. Occur in the processing of the radial forces are taken up by bezel. This allows you to eliminate all sorts of vibrations and deflections, respectively, to ensure high precision machining.

The Cycle of movement of the headstock and tools in the machines longitudinal turning of the Cams sets that are configured on this specific DETA...

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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